Blu-ray Disc Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format designed to supersede the DVD format.
Book music Book Music is a medium for storing the music played on mechanical organs, mainly of European manufacture.
British Tape Recorder British Tape Recorders or BTR machines were reel-to-reel tape recorders initially made by EMI in England after World War II. They were the first magnetic tape recorders to be manufactured ...
Buffalo Convention The Buffalo Convention of December 10, 1908 established two future roll formats for the US-producers of piano rolls for self-playing pianos.
Cardboard record Cardboard records were a type of cheaply made phonograph record made of plastic-coated thin paperboard.
Cassette demagnetizer A cassette demagnetizer is a device that removes the magnetic field that is built up from the use of audio cassettes in a cassette deck.
Cassette single A cassette single is a music single in the form of a Compact Cassette.
Cassette tape adaptor The cassette adapter allows one to play music through sound systems with a tape player without the need for an auxiliary input.
CD Video CD Video (also known as CDV, CD-V, or CD+V) was a format introduced in 1987 that combined the technologies of compact disc and laserdisc.
CD video CD Video was a format introduced in 1987 that combined the technologies of compact disc and laserdisc.
CD+G CD+G (also known as CD-G, CD+Graphics and TV-Graphics) is an extension of the compact disc standard that can present low-resolution graphics alongside the audio data on the dis...
CD-i CD-i, or Compact Disc Interactive, is the name of an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N.V. This category of device was created to provid...
CD-R A CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a variation of the compact disc invented by Philips and Sony.
CD-RW A CD-RW (Compact Disc-ReWritable) is a rewritable optical disc.
Charles Sumner Tainter Charles Sumner Tainter (April 25, 1854 – April 20, 1940) was an American scientific instrument maker, engineer and inventor, best known for his collaborations with Alexander Graham Bell, Chiches...
Code (audio standard) Code or ΧΟΔΕ (also pronounced "code") is a brand name for the high-fidelity audio DVD-Video disc developed by Grammy Award-winning record producer T-Bone Burnett.
Compact Cassette The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a magnetic tape sound recording format.
Compact Disc Compact disc, or CD for short, is a digital optical disc data storage format.
Compact disc Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.
Constant angular velocity In optical storage, constant angular velocity (CAV) is a qualifier for the rated speed of an optical disc drive, and may also be applied to the writing speed of recordable discs.
Constant linear velocity In optical storage, constant linear velocity (CLV) is a qualifier for the rated speed of an optical disc drive, and may also be applied to the writing speed of recordable discs.
Cross-field head A cross-field head, sometimes referred to as X-field, is an additional recording head in a tape recorder that improves the ability to record high-frequency sounds.
DA-88 The DA-88 was a digital multitrack recording device introduced by the TASCAM division of the TEAC Corporation in 1993.
Demo (music) A demo version or demo of a song (shortened from the word "demonstration") is one recorded for reference rather than for release.
Dictabelt The Dictabelt or Memobelt was a form of recording medium introduced by the American Dictaphone company in 1947.
Dictaphone Dictaphone was an American company that produced dictation machines.
Dictation machine A dictation machine is a sound recording device most commonly used to record speech for later playback or to be typed into print.
Digital Audio Stationary Head The Digital Audio Stationary Head or DASH standard is a reel-to-reel, digital audio tape format introduced by Sony in early 1982 for high-quality multitrack studio recording and mastering, a...
Digital Audio Tape Digital Audio Tape (DAT or R-DAT) is a signal recording and playback medium developed by Sony and introduced in 1987.
Digital Compact Cassette The Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) is a magnetic tape sound recording format introduced by Philips and Matsushita in late 1992 and marketed as the successor to the standard analog Compact ...
Digital dictation Digital dictation is a method of recording and editing the spoken word in real-time.
Digital eXtreme Definition Digital eXtreme Definition is an alternative audio encoding scheme for professional use that was developed for editing high-resolution recordings recorded in DSD, the audio standard used on Supe...
Direct Metal Mastering Direct Metal Mastering is a vinyl record manufacturing technology by TELDEC. Records manufactured with this technology are often marked by a "DMM" logo on the outer record sleeve.
Direct Stream Digital Direct-Stream Digital (DSD) is the trademark name used by Sony and Philips for their system of digitally recreating audible signals for the Super Audio CD (SACD).
Discomix A discomix, or simply a disco, is an extended reggae 12-inch single that typically features the vocal track followed by a dub version or a deejay version of the same track.
Double album A double album (or double record) is an audio album which spans two units of the primary medium in which it is sold, typically records and compact discs.
Double Density Compact Disc Double Density Compact Disc (DDCD) is an optical disc technology developed by Sony using the same laser wave-length as compact disc, namely 780 nm.
Double extended play A double extended play is the name typically given to vinyl records or compact discs released as a set of two discs, each of which would normally qualify as an EP. The name is thus analogous to ...
Double-density compact disc Double-density compact disc (DDCD) is an optical disc technology developed by Sony using the same laser wavelength as compact disc, namely 780 nm.
DTRS The DA-88 was a digital multitrack recording device introduced by the TASCAM division of the TEAC Corporation in 1993.
DualDisc DualDisc was a type of double-sided optical disc product developed by a group of record companies including MJJ Productions Inc, EMI Music, Universal Music Group, Sony/BMG Music Entertainment, W...
DVD DVD (sometimes explained as "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995.
DVD-Audio DVD-Audio (commonly abbreviated as DVD-A) is a digital format for delivering high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. DVD-Audio is not intended to be a video delivery format and is not the sa...
DVD-RAM DVD-RAM (DVD–Random Access Memory) is a disc specification presented in 1996 by the DVD Forum, which specifies rewritable DVD-RAM media and the appropriate DVD writers.
DVD-Video DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD discs, and is currently the dominant consumer video format in Asia, North America, Europe, and Australia.
Dynaflex (RCA) Dynaflex was a trademark for a thin, lightweight vinyl LP record introduced by RCA Records in late 1969.
Dynagroove Dynagroove is a recording process introduced in 1963 exclusive to RCA Victor that, for the first time, used computers ("electronic brains") to modify the audio signal fed to a cutting lathe with...
Edison Disc Record The Edison Disc, also known as a Diamond Disc record, was a type of audio disc record marketed by Edison Records from 1912 to 1929.
Eight-to-fourteen modulation Eight-to-fourteen modulation (EFM) is a data encoding technique – formally, a channel code – used by compact discs (CD), laserdiscs (LD) and pre-Hi-MD MiniDiscs.
Elcaset Elcaset was a short-lived audio format jointly develeoped by Panasonic, Sony and Teac in 1976, building on an idea introduced 20 years earlier in the RCA tape cartridge.
Enhanced CD Enhanced CD is a certification mark of the Recording Industry Association of America for various technologies that combine audio and computer data for use in both Compact Disc and CD-ROM players.
Extended play An extended play (EP) is a musical recording that contains more music than a single, but is usually too short to qualify as a full studio album or LP. The term EP originally referred to sp...
Fast forward To fast-forward is to move forward through a recording at a speed faster than that at which it would usually be played.
Fidelipac The Fidelipac, commonly known as an NAB cartridge or simply cart, is a magnetic tape sound recording format, used for radio broadcasting for playback of material over the air such as...
Fluorescent Multilayer Disc Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD) is an optical disc format developed by Constellation 3D that uses fluorescent, rather than reflective materials to store data.
Gramophone record A gramophone record (phonograph record in American English) or vinyl record, commonly known as "a record", is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat polyviny...
Gray Audograph The Gray Audograph was a dictation format introduced in 1945.
Gábor Kornél Tolnai Gábor Kornél Tolnai, born November 22, 1902 in Budapest, died on February 3, 1982 in Stockholm, was a Hungarian-Swedish Diploma engineer, inventor, constructor, mechanical engineer, precision en...
HD DVD HD DVD (short for High-Definition/Density DVD) is a discontinued high-density optical disc format for storing data and high-definition video.
Hi-MD In January 2004, Sony announced the Hi-MD media storage format as a further development of the MiniDisc format.
High Fidelity Pure Audio Blu-Ray The High Fidelity Pure Audio Blu-Ray format, sometimes referred to as HFPA Blu-Ray or Blu-Ray Audio is a lossless audio format created by Olivier Robert-Murphy of the Universal Music Group.
HighMAT HighMAT (High Performance Media Access Technologies) is a media format jointly developed by Matsushita and Microsoft for personal CD authoring with music and photo content.
Highway Hi-Fi Highway Hi-Fi was a system of proprietary players and seven-inch phonograph records with standard LP center holes designed for use in automobiles.
Hybrid disc A Hybrid disc is a disc, such as CD-ROM or more recently a Blu-ray Disc, which contains multiple types of data which can be used differently on different devices.
Hyper CD-ROM The Hyper CD-ROM is an optical data storage device similar to the CD-ROM with a multilayer 3D structure, invented by Romanian scientist Dr. Eugen Pavel.
J-card A j-card is the paper card inserted in the plastic storage case of most pre-recorded audio cassette releases, as well as cassettes of bootleg or copied concerts of the jam band scene.
Loop bin duplicator A loop bin duplicator is a specialized audio tape machine used in the duplication of pre-recorded audio cassettes.
Loran (cassette) Loran was the brand name of a blank compact audio cassette marketed throughout the 1970s and 1980s and manufactured by Loran Cassettes & Audio Products, Inc, a division of Loranger Manufacturing...
LP record The LP (Long Play), or 33⅓ rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a format for phonograph (gramophone) records, an analog sound storage medium.
Magnetic tape Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film.
Magnetic tape sound recording An audio tape recorder, tape deck, reel-to-reel tape deck, cassette deck or tape machine is an audio storage device that records and plays back sounds, including articula...
Magnetophon Magnetophon was the brand or model name of the pioneering reel-to-reel tape recorder developed by engineers of the German electronics company AEG in the 1930s, based on the magnetic tape inventi...
Marie Killick Marie Louise Killick (in some sources Maria) (died 1964) was an English audio engineer who patented the truncated-tip sapphire stylus in 1945 for playing gramophone records.
Matrix numbers Matrix numbers are alphanumeric codes (and on occasion, other symbols) stamped or hand written (or a combination of the two) into the run-out groove area of a gramophone record.
Microcassette A Microcassette (often written generically as microcassette) is an audio storage medium introduced by Olympus in 1969.
Mini Cassette The Mini-Cassette, often written minicassette, is a tape cassette format introduced by Philips in 1967.
Mini CD Mini CDs, or "pocket CDs", are CDs with a smaller diameter and one third the storage capacity of a full size disc.
Mini-Cassette The Mini-Cassette, often written minicassette, is a tape cassette format introduced by Philips in 1967.
Mini-LP A mini-LP or mini-album is a short vinyl record album or LP, usually retailing at a lower price than an album that would be considered full-length.
MiniDisc The MiniDisc (MD) is an obsolete magneto-optical disc-based data storage device for 74 minutes and, later, 80 minutes, of digitized audio or 1 gigabyte of Hi-MD data.
MultiLevel Recording MultiLevel Recording was a technology originally developed by Optex Corporation and promoted by Calimetrics to increase the storage capacity of optical discs.
MVI MVI stands for Musical Video Interactive, a DVD-based means of packing audio, video and interactive visual content (for example lyrics) onto one disk.
Nagra Nagra is the trademark referring to any of the series of mostly battery-operated portable professional audio recorders produced by Kudelski SA, based in Cheseaux-sur-Lausanne, Switzerland.
NICE Systems NICE Systems, Limited (נייס מערכות),Is an Israel based company, specialising in telephone voice recording, data security, and surveillance.
Optical disc drive In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writ...
Optical recording The history of optical recording can be divided into a few number of distinct major contributions.
Oxide side The oxide side of a tape is the surface that can be magnetically manipulated by a tape head.
PCM adaptor A PCM adaptor is a device used for recording digital audio in the PCM format, which in turn connects to a video cassette recorder (acting as a transport) for storage and playback of the digital ...
Philips CD-i CD-i, or Compact Disc Interactive, is the name of an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N.V. CD-i also refers to the multimedia Compact Di...
Phonograph cylinder Phonograph cylinders are the earliest commercial medium for recording and reproducing sound.
Phonorecord A phonorecord is defined by the United States Copyright Act of 1976 to be a material object which embodies sounds, for example cassette tapes, CDs or albums.
Piano roll A piano roll is a music storage medium used to operate a player piano, piano player or reproducing piano.
Picocassette Picocassette is an audio storage medium introduced by Dictaphone in collaboration with JVC in 1985.
Picture disc Picture discs are gramophone (phonograph) records that show images on their playing surface, rather than being of plain black or coloured vinyl.
Pinch wheel Pinch wheel or pinch roller was the name used for the plastic or rubber wheels in an 8-track cartridge, used to guide and align the magnetic tape.
PlayTape PlayTape was an audiotape format and playback system introduced in 1966 by Frank Stanton.
Pocket Rockers Pocket Rockers was a brand of personal stereo produced by Fisher-Price in the late 1980s, aimed at elementary school-age children.
PocketDisc Pocket Disc were a type of flexidisc, made by Americom Coperation and experimented with in the late 1960s by 28 major record labels, (but some major labels such as Columbia Records, RCA Records,...
PopCatcher PopCatcher is a Swedish audio research company founded in 2000.
ProDigi Mitsubishi's ProDigi was a professional audio, reel-to-reel, digital audio tape format with a stationary head position, similar to Sony's Digital Audio Stationary Head, which competed against Pr...
Production of gramophone records For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the master disc at the recording studio.
Program Memory Area PMA: The Program Memory Area of a CDRW is a record of the data recorded on an unfinished or unfinalized disc.
Quantegy Quantegy Recording Solutions is a manufacturer of magnetic tape and professional external hard drives based in Opelika, Alabama.
RCA tape cartridge The RCA tape cartridge (also known as the Magazine Loading Cartridge and Sound Tape) was a magnetic tape format designed to offer stereo quarter-inch reel-to-reel tape recording qual...
Record collecting Record collecting is the hobby of collecting sound recordings, usually of music and/or the "spoken word" (i.e.
Record press A record press is a machine for manufacturing vinyl records.
Reel-to-reel audio tape recording Reel-to-reel or open-reel tape recording is the form of magnetic tape audio recording in which the recording medium is held on a reel, rather than being securely contained within a cassette.
RIAA equalization RIAA equalization is a specification for the recording and playback of phonograph records, established by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).
Ribs (recordings) Ribs («рёбра», translit. ryobra), also being called Music on ribs («Музыка на рёбрах»), Jazz on bones («Джаз на костях»), are slang names for x-ray shots, most...
Ripping Ripping is the process of copying audio or video content to a hard disk, typically from removable media such as compact disc (CD) or DVD, although the word refers to all forms of media.
Run-length limited Run length limited or RLL coding is a line coding technique that is used to send arbitrary data over a communications channel with bandwidth limits.
Single (music) In music, a single or record single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album.
SoundScriber SoundScriber Disc was a dictation format introduced in 1945 by The SoundScriber Corp.
Soundstream Soundstream Inc. was the first audiophile digital audio recording company, providing commercial services for recording and computer-based editing.
Stacked Volumetric Optical Disk The Stacked Volumetric Optical Disc (or SVOD) is an optical disc format developed by Hitachi/Maxell, which uses an array of wafer-thin optical discs to allow data storage.
Stellavox Stellavox is company based in Switzerland and is likely most noted for their compact reel tapes recorders manufactured under the 1960 and 70s.
Steno-Cassette The Steno-Cassette is an analog cassette format for dictation, introduced by Grundig in 1971.
Stereo-Pak The Muntz Stereo-Pak, commonly known as the 4-track cartridge, is a magnetic tape sound recording cartridge technology.
Sticky-shed syndrome Sticky-shed syndrome is a condition created by the deterioration of the binders in a magnetic tape, which hold the iron oxide magnetizable coating to its plastic carrier.
Super Audio CD Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical disc for audio storage, introduced in 1999.
Tape bias Tape bias is the term for two phenomena, DC bias and AC bias, that improve the fidelity of analogue magnetic tape sound recordings.
Tape head A tape head is a type of transducer used in tape recorders to convert electrical signals to magnetic fluctuations and vice versa.
Tape recorder An audio tape recorder, tape deck or tape machine is an audio storage device that records and plays back sounds, including articulated voices, usually using magnetic tape, either w...
Test CD A Test CD usually refers to a compact disc containing tracks of musical and technical tests and demostrations.
Total Hi Def Total Hi Def Disc, also called Total HD or THD, was a planned optical disc format that included both of the rival high-definition optical disc formats, Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD. It wa...
Transcription machine The transcription machine is a special purpose machine which is used for word or voice processing.
Transport (recording) A transport is a device that handles a particular physical storage medium itself, and extracts or records the information to and from the medium, to an outboard set of processing electronics tha...
Universal Media Disc The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on their PlayStation Portable handheld gaming and multimedia platform.
Verba Technologies Verba Technologies is a Hackensack, New Jersey based US independent software vendor developing call recording technologies for unified communications.
Vertical cut recording The vertical cut recording process is an early method of audio recording by which a stylus cuts a vertical groove into a phonograph record.
Video Single Disc Video Single Disc (VSD) was a disc-based format that carried the same analog video information as a laserdisc, but on a 12-centimetre (4.72 inch) diameter CD-DA-sized disc.
Vinyl disc records preservation Vinyl disc records preservation refers to the preventive measures taken to defend against damage and slow degradation, and to maintain fidelity of singles, 12" singles, EP, LP in 45 or 33⅓ rpm ...
Vinyl record A gramophone record, commonly known as a phonograph record, vinyl record, or colloquially, a record, is an analog sound storage medium consisting of a flat disc with an ins...
VinylDisc The VinylDisc is a combination of a digital layer, either in CD or DVD format, and an analogue layer, which is a vinyl record, developed by German company Optimal Media Production.
Volta Laboratory and Bureau The Volta Laboratory, also variously known as the "Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory", the "Bell Carriage House" and the "Bell Laboratory", plus the Volta Bureau, were created in Georgetown...
White Book (CD standard) The White Book, which was released in 1993 by Sony, Philips, Matsushita, and JVC refers to a standard of compact disc that stores not only sound but also still pictures and motion video.
Wire recording Wire recording is a type of analog audio storage in which a magnetic recording is made on thin steel or stainless steel wire.
Wow (recording) Wow is a relatively slow form of flutter (pitch variation) which can affect both gramophone records and tape recorders.
XDR (audio) XDR (eXtended Dynamic Range, also known as SDR (Super Dynamic Range)) is a quality-control and duplication process for the mass-production of pre-recorded audio cassettes.