Active queue management In Internet routers, active queue management (AQM) is the arbitrary reorder or drop of network packets inside the transmit buffer of a network interface controller.
Berkeley Packet Filter The Berkeley Packet Filter or BPF provides, on some Unix-like systems, a raw interface to data link layers, permitting raw link-layer packets to be sent and received.
Black hole (networking) In networking, black holes refer to places in the network where incoming or outgoing traffic is silently discarded (or "dropped"), without informing the source that the data did not reach its intended recipient.
Blue (queue management algorithm) Blue is an scheduling discipline for the network scheduler developed by graduate student Wu-chang Feng for Professor Kang G. Shin at the University of Michigan and others at the Thomas J. Watso...
Broadcasting (computing) In computing, broadcasting refers to a method of transferring a message to all recipients simultaneously.
Broadcasting (networking) In telecommunication and information theory, broadcasting refers to a method of transferring a message to all recipients simultaneously.
Business Control Layer Business Control Layer (BCL) is a software layer in the provider's infrastructure residing between the network/OSS and the BSS. It allows providers to address customer service plans from a holis...
Catenet Catenet is an obsolete term for a system of packet-switched communication networks interconnected via gateways.
Cell relay In computer networking, cell relay refers to a method of statistically multiplexing small fixed-length packets, called "cells", to transport data between computers or kinds of network equipment.
Christmas tree packet In information technology, a Christmas tree packet is a packet with every single option set for whatever protocol is in use.
Cisco Express Forwarding Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) is an advanced layer 3 switching technology used mainly in large core networks or the Internet to enhance the overall network performance.
CoDel In network routing, CoDel for controlled delay is a scheduling algorithm for the network scheduler developed by Van Jacobson and Kathleen Nichols.
Context-based access control Context-based access control (CBAC) is a feature of firewall software which intelligently filters TCP and UDP packets based on application layer protocol session information.
Controlled Delay In network routing, controlled delay or CoDel is an active queue management algorithm developed by Van Jacobson and Kathleen Nichols.
Cut-through switching In computer networking, cut-through switching is a method for packet switching systems, wherein the switch starts forwarding a frame (or packet) before the whole frame has been received, normally as soon as the destination address is processed.
Datagram A datagram is a basic transfer unit associated with a packet-switched network in which the delivery, arrival time, and order of arrival are not guaranteed by the network.
Datakit Datakit is a virtual circuit switch which was developed at Bell Labs for both local-area and wide-area networks, and in widespread deployment by the Regional Bell Operating Companies.
Deep packet inspection Deep Packet Inspection (DPI, also called complete packet inspection and Information eXtraction or IX) is a form of computer network packet filtering that examines the dat...
Deterministic jitter Deterministic jitter (or DJ) is a type of jitter with a known non-Gaussian probability distribution.
Donald Davies Donald Watts Davies, CBE, FRS (7 June 1924 – 28 May 2000) was a Welsh computer scientist who was one of the two independent inventors of packet switched computer networking, and originator...
Dynamic Packet Transport Dynamic packet transport (DPT) is a Cisco transport protocol designed for use in optical fiber ring networks.
Fast packet switching In telecommunications, fast packet switching is a packet switching technique that increases the throughput by eliminating overhead.
Firewall (computing) In computing, a firewall is a software or hardware-based network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether t...
Frame (networking) In computer networking and telecommunication, a frame is a digital data transmission unit that includes frame synchronization, i.e. a sequence of bits or symbols making it possible for the recei...
Frame check sequence A frame check sequence (FCS) refers to the extra error-detecting code added to a frame in a communications protocol.
G.8261 ITU-T Recommendation G.8261/Y.1361 (formerly G.pactiming) "Timing and Synchronization Aspects in Packet Networks" specifies the upper limits of allowable network jitter and wander, the minim...
Gigapackets Gigapackets are billions of packets or datagrams.
IPSANET IPSANET was a packet switching network written by I. P. Sharp Associates.
IPv6 packet An IPv6 packet is the smallest message entity exchanged via the Internet Protocol across an Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) network.
Jitter Jitter is the undesired deviation from true periodicity of an assumed periodic signal in electronics and telecommunications, often in relation to a reference clock source.
Jumbo frame In computer networking, jumbo frames are Ethernet frames with more than 1500 bytes of payload.
Jumbogram In packet-switched computer networks, a jumbogram (portmanteau of jumbo and datagram) is an internet layer packet exceeding the standard maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the underlying...
Lag In real-time applications, lag is when the application fails to respond in a timely fashion to inputs.
Large segment offload In computer networking, large segment offload (LSO) is a technique for increasing outbound throughput of high-bandwidth network connections by reducing CPU overhead.
Link state packet Link State Packet (LSP) is a packet of information generated by a network router in a link state routing protocol that lists the router's neighbors.
Mangled packet In computer networking, a mangled or invalid packet is a packet — especially IP packet — that either lacks order or self-coherence, or contains code aimed to confuse or disrupt computers, ...
Martian packet A Martian packet is an IP packet which specifies a source or destination address that is reserved for special-use by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
Maximum segment size The maximum segment size (MSS) is a parameter of the TCP protocol that specifies the largest amount of data, specified in octets, that a computer or communications device can receive in a ...
Maximum transmission unit In computer networking, the maximum transmission unit (MTU) of a communications protocol of a layer is the size (in bytes) of the largest protocol data unit that the layer can pass onwards.
Network congestion In data networking and queueing theory, network congestion occurs when a link or node is carrying so much data that its quality of service deteriorates.
Network intelligence Network Intelligence (NI) is a technology that builds on the concepts and capabilities of Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), Packet Capture and Business Intelligence (BI).
Network packet A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.
NIST RBAC model The NIST RBAC model is a standardized definition of role based access control.
OmniPeek OmniPeek is a packet analyzer software tool from WildPackets Inc., for network troubleshooting and protocol analysis.
Out-of-order delivery In computer networking, out-of-order delivery is the delivery of data packets in a different order from which they were sent.
Packet aggregation In a packet-based communications network, packet aggregation is the process of joining multiple packets together into a single transmission unit, in order to reduce the overhead associated with ...
Packet analyzer A packet analyzer (also known as a network analyzer, protocol analyzer or packet sniffer, or for particular types of networks, an Ethernet sniffer or wireless sniffer) is a computer program or a piece of computer hardware that can intercept and log traffic...
Packet Assembler/Disassembler A packet assembler/disassembler, abbreviated PAD is a communications device which provides multiple asynchronous terminal connectivity to an X.25 network or host computer.
Packet capture Packet capture is the act of capturing data packets crossing a computer network.
Packet concatenation Packet concatenation is a computer networking optimization that coalesces multiple packets under a single header.
Packet drop attack In computer networking, a packet drop attack or blackhole attack is a type of denial-of-service attack in which a router that is supposed to relay packets instead discards them.
Packet generator A packet generator or packet builder is a type of software that generates random packets or allows the user to construct detailed custom packets.
Packet injection Packet injection (also known as forging packets or spoofing packets) is a computer networking term that refers to the process of interfering with an established network connection, by means of c...
Packet loss Packet loss occurs when one or more packets of data travelling across a computer network fail to reach their destination.
Packet processing In digital communications networks, packet processing refers to the wide variety of algorithms that are applied to a packet of data or information as it moves through the various network element...
Packet segmentation In a data communications networks, packet segmentation is the process of dividing a data packet into smaller units for transmission over the network.
Packet Switch Stream In the United Kingdom, Packet Switch Stream was an X.25-based packet-switched network, provided by the British Post Office Telecommunications and then British Telecom starting in 1980.
Packet switching Packet switching is a digital networking communications method that groups all transmitted data – regardless of content, type, or structure – into suitably sized blocks, called pac...
Packet telephony Packet telephony is the use of personal computers and a packet data network to produce a voice conversation.
Packet-switched network A packet-switched network is a digital communications network that groups all transmitted data, irrespective of content, type, or structure into suitably sized blocks, called packets.
Packet-switching node Packet-switching node: In a packet-switching network, a node that contains data switches and equipment for controlling, formatting, transmitting, routing, and receiving data packets.
PARC Universal Packet The PARC Universal Packet (commonly abbreviated to PUP, although the original documents usually use Pup) was one of the two earliest internetwork protocol suites; it was created by r...
Paul Baran Paul Baran (April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was an American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks.
Ping (video gaming) In multiplayer online video games, MMOS, MMORPGS, MMOFPS and FPS ping (not to be confused with frames per second) refers to the network latency between a player's computer (client), and eith...
Processing delay In a network based on packet switching, processing delay is the time it takes routers to process the packet header.
Start Frame Delimiter The Start Frame Delimiter is the 8-bit value marking the end of the preamble of an Ethernet frame.
Start frame delimiter The Start Frame Delimiter (SFD) is the 8-bit (1-byte) value marking the end of the preamble, which is the first field of an Ethernet packet, and indicating the beginning of the Ethernet frame.
Syncword In computer networks, a syncword, sync character or preamble is used to synchronize a transmission by indicating the end of header information and the start of data.
TCP reset attack TCP reset attack, also known as "forged TCP resets", "spoofed TCP reset packets" or "TCP reset attacks".
Traffic flow (computer networking) In packet switching networks, traffic flow, packet flow or network flow is a sequence of packets from a source computer to a destination, which may be another host, a multicast group, ...
UPC and NPC Usage Parameter Control and Network Parameter Control are functions performed in a computer network at the User-Network Interface or the Network-Node Interface, respectively, that check an...