Agent Communications Language Agent Communication Language (ACL), proposed by the Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), is a proposed standard language for agent communications.
AgMES The AgMES (Agricultural Metadata Element set) initiative was developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and aims to encompass issues of semantic standards in ...
Agricultural Information Management Standards Agricultural Information Management Standards, abbreviated to AIMS is a space for accessing and discussing agricultural information management standards, tools and methodologies connecting...
AGRIS AGRIS (International System for Agricultural Science and Technology) is a global public domain database with more than 4 million structured bibliographical records on agricultural science and te...
AGROVOC AGROVOC is the corporate thesaurus of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
Allen's Interval Algebra Allen's Interval Algebra is a calculus for temporal reasoning that was introduced by James F. Allen in 1983.
Allen's interval algebra Allen's interval algebra is a calculus for temporal reasoning that was introduced by James F. Allen in 1983.
Artificial neural network In computer science and related fields, artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by animals' central nervous systems (in particular the brain) that are capable of machine le...
Attempto Controlled English Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a controlled natural language, i.e. a subset of standard English with a restricted syntax and a restricted semantics described by a small set of construction...
Attribute-value system An attribute-value system is a basic knowledge representation framework comprising a table with columns designating "attributes" and rows designating "objects".
BabelNet BabelNet is a multilingual lexicalized semantic network and ontology.
Basic Formal Ontology The Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) is a formal ontological framework developed by Barry Smith and his associates that consists in a series of sub-ontologies at different levels of granularity.
BCM Classification The British Catalogue of Music Classification (BCM Classification) is a faceted classification that was commissioned from E. J. Coates by the Council of the British National Bibliography to orga...
Belief revision Belief revision is the process of changing beliefs to take into account a new piece of information.
Bliss bibliographic classification The Bliss bibliographic classification (BC) is a library classification system that was created by Henry E. Bliss (1870–1955) and published in four volumes between 1940 and 1953.
Brand page A brand page (also known as a page or fan page), in online social networking parlance, is a profile on a social networking website which is considered distinct from an actual User pr...
Brinkler classification Brinkler Classification is the library classification system of Bartol Brinkler described in his article "The Geographical Approach to Materials in the Library of Congress Subject Headings".
Case role Case roles, according to the work by Fillmore (1967), are the semantic roles of noun phrases in relation to the syntactic structures that contain these noun phrases.
Categorization Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood.
CDS ISIS CDS/ISIS is a software package for generalised Information Storage and Retrieval systems developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO. It was first released in 1985 and since then over 20,000 licences have been issued by UNESCO and a worldwide network of distributors.
Chinese Library Classification The Chinese Library Classification (中国图书馆分类法 CLC), also known as Classification for Chinese Libraries (CCL), is effectively the national library classification scheme in China.
Chow-Liu tree In probability theory and statistics Chow–Liu tree is an efficient method for constructing a second-order product approximation of a joint probability distribution, first described in a paper by.
CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) provides an extensible ontology for concepts and information in cultural heritage and museum documentation.
Closed world assumption The closed world assumption is the presumption that what is not currently known to be true is false.
Cognitive map A cognitive map (also: mental map or mental model) is a type of mental representation which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment.
Colon classification Colon classification (CC) is a system of library classification developed by S. R. Ranganathan.
Composite Capability/Preference Profiles Composite Capability/Preference Profiles (CC/PP) is a specification for defining capabilities and preferences (also known as 'delivery context') of user agents.
Composite portrait Composite portraiture (also known as composite photographs) is a technique invented by Sir Francis Galton in the 1880s after a suggestion by Herbert Spencer for registering photographs of hu...
Concept map A concept map is a diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts.
Conceptual graph Conceptual graphs (CGs) are a formalism for knowledge representation.
Conceptualization (information science) In information science a conceptualization is an abstract simplified view of some selected part of the world, containing the objects, concepts, and other entities that are presumed of interest f...
Controlled vocabulary Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval.
Darwin Core Darwin Core (often abbreviated to DwC) is a body of data standards which function as an extension of Dublin Core for biodiversity informatics applications, establishing a vocabulary of ter...
Darwin Core Archive Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) is a Biodiversity informatics data standard that makes use of the Darwin Core terms to produce a single, self-contained dataset for species occurrence or checklist data.
Data dictionary A data dictionary, or metadata repository, as defined in the IBM Dictionary of Computing, is a "centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data,...
Data steward In metadata, a data steward is a person that is responsible for maintaining a data element in a metadata registry.
Default logic Default logic is a non-monotonic logic proposed by Raymond Reiter to formalize reasoning with default assumptions.
Defeasible reasoning Defeasible reasoning is a kind of reasoning that is based on reasons that are defeasible, as opposed to the indefeasible reasons of deductive logic.
Designated Community In information and archival communities, a Designated Community is an identified group of potential consumers who should be able to understand a particular set of information.
Dewey Decimal Classification The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), or Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published by Melvil Dewey in 1876.
Digital curation Digital curation is the selection, preservation, maintenance, collection and archiving of digital assets.
DOAP Description of a Project (DOAP) is an RDF schema and XML vocabulary to describe software projects, and in particular open-source.
Document classification Document classification or document categorization is a problem in library science, information science and computer science.
DogmaModeler DogmaModeler is a free and open source (GNU GPL) ontology modeling tool based on ORM. The philosophy of DogmaModeler is to enable non-IT experts to model ontologies with a little or no involveme...
Dublin Core The Dublin Core Schema is a small set of vocabulary terms that can be used to describe web resources (video, images, web pages, etc.), as well as physical resources such as books or CDs, and obj...
Dynamic Knowledge Repository The Dynamic Knowledge Repository is a concept developed by Douglas C. Engelbart as a primary stategetic focus for allowing humans to address complex problems.
Dynamic knowledge repository The dynamic knowledge repository (DKR) is a concept developed by Douglas C. Engelbart as a primary strategic focus for allowing humans to address complex problems.
E-Services The concept of E-service (short for electronic service), represents one prominent application of utilizing the use of Information and communication technologies (ICTs) in different areas.
E-services The concept of e-service represents one prominent application of utilizing the use of information and communication technologies in different areas. However, providing an exact definition of e-service is hard to come by as researchers have been using different definitions to describe e-service.
East Pole-West Pole divide The East Pole–West Pole divide in the fields of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience is an intellectual schism between researchers subscribing to the nativist and empiricist schools o...
East Pole–West Pole Divide The East Pole–West Pole Divide in the fields of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience is an intellectual schism between researchers subscribing to the nativist and empiricist schools o...
Enaction Enaction is one of the possible ways of organizing knowledge and one of the forms of interaction with the world.
Enaction (philosophy) Enaction in the study of philosophy is related to the study of embodied cognition, the notion that mind is not coterminous with the brain or perhaps even an entire organism, but goes farther in its emphasis upon the interactions between a living organism and its surroundings.
Enterprise Interoperability The Enterprise Interoperability qualifies the faculty of Enterprise to establish a partnership activity (in product design, organization of the activities of production, supply chains piloting) ...
Enterprise interoperability Enterprise interoperability qualifies the faculty of enterprise to establish a partnership activity in an efficient and competitive way in an environment of unstable market.
ERIL ERIL (Entity-Relationship and Inheritance Language) is a visual language for representing the data structure of a computer system.
Event calculus The event calculus is a logical language for representing and reasoning about actions and their effects first presented by Robert Kowalski and Marek Sergot in 1986.
F-logic F-logic (frame logic) is a knowledge representation and ontology language.
FAO Country Profiles The FAO Country Profiles provide access to systems managing statistics, documents, maps, news feeds, etc., therefore one of its key aspects to succeed was the mapping of all these country codes.
Figurative system of human knowledge The "figurative system of human knowledge", sometimes known as the tree of Diderot and d'Alembert, was a tree developed to represent the structure of knowledge itself, produced for the E...
Findability Findability is a term for the ease with which information contained on a website can be found, both from outside the website (using search engines and the like) and by users already on the website.
Folksonomy A folksonomy is a system of classification derived from the practice and method of collaboratively creating and translating tags to annotate and categorize content; this practice is also known a...
Frame language A frame language is a technology used for knowledge representation in artificial intelligence.
Frame problem In artificial intelligence, the frame problem describes an issue with using First Order Logic (FOL) to express facts about a robot in the world.
FrameNet FrameNet is a project housed at the International Computer Science Institute in Berkeley, California which produces an electronic resource based on a theory of meaning called frame semantics.
Framing (social sciences) In the social sciences, framing is a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals, groups, and societies organize, perceive, and communicate about reality.
Futures wheel The Futures wheel is a method for graphical visualisation of direct and indirect future consequences of a particular change or development.
Fuzzy cognitive map A Fuzzy cognitive map is a cognitive map within which the relations between the elements (e.g.
General Architecture for Text Engineering General Architecture for Text Engineering or GATE is a Java suite of tools originally developed at the University of Sheffield beginning in 1995 and now used worldwide by a wide community ...
Geopolitical ontology The geopolitical ontology, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), provides names in seven languages (Arabic, Chinese, French, English, Spanish, Russian a...
GermaNet GermaNet is a lexical-semantic net for the German language that relates nouns, verbs, and adjectives semantically by grouping lexical units that express the same concept into synsets and by ...
GnowSys GNOWSYS is a specification for a generic distributed network based memory/knowledge management.
GNOWSYS GNOWSYS is a specification for a generic distributed network based memory/knowledge management.
Guideline execution engine A Guideline Execution Engine is a computer program which can interpret a clinical guideline represented in a computerized format and perform actions towards the user of an electronic medical record.
IDAMS IDAMS is a proprietary software package for processing and analysing numerical data developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO.
IDIS (software) IDIS is a software tool for direct data exchange between CDS/ISIS and IDAMS. It is developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO.
IMARK The Information Management Resource Kit (IMARK) is a partnership-based e-learning initiative developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and partner organizati...
IMS VDEX IMS VDEX, which stands for IMS Vocabulary Definition Exchange, is a mark-up language – or grammar – for controlled vocabularies developed by IMS Global as an open specification, with the F...
Integrated Operations in the High North Integrated Operations in the High North is a unique collaboration project that during a four-year period starting May 2008 is working on designing, implementing and testing a Digital Platform fo...
Is-a In knowledge representation, object-oriented programming and design, is-a or is_a or is a (subsumption) is a relationship where one class A is a subclass of another class B ...
Ishikawa diagram Ishikawa diagrams are causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa that show the causes of a specific event. Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect.
ISO 15926 The ISO 15926 is a standard for data integration, sharing, exchange, and hand-over between computer systems.
Issue trees An issue tree, also called a logic tree, is a graphical breakdown of a question that dissects it into its different components vertically and that progresses into details as it reads to the right.
ITools Resourceome iTools is a distributed infrastructure for managing, discovery, comparison and integration of computational biology resources.
John F. Sowa John Florian Sowa (born 1940) is an American computer scientist, an expert in artificial intelligence and computer design, and the inventor of conceptual graphs.
KEE Kee- also called "Kee Mcree" is a male student who goes to a high school school in New York.
Keyword AAA Keyword AAA is a thesaurus created by the State Records Authority of New South Wales.
KM programming language KM, the Knowledge Machine, is a frame-based language used for knowledge representation work.
Knowledge base A knowledge base (KB) is a technology used to store complex structured and unstructured information used by a computer system.
Knowledge discovery Knowledge discovery is a concept of the field of computer science that describes the process of automatically searching large volumes of data for patterns that can be considered knowledge abou...
Knowledge representation and reasoning Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) devoted to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve...
Knowledge space In mathematical psychology, a knowledge space is a combinatorial structure describing the possible states of knowledge of a human learner.
Knowledge tag In information systems, a tag is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information.
Knowledge value chain A knowledge value chain is a sequence of intellectual tasks by which knowledge workers build their employer's unique competitive advantage and/or social and environmental benefit.
Living graph In terms of knowledge representation, a living graph (also referred to as a "lifeline", "living timeline" or "fortune line".
Logic form Logic forms are simple, first-order logic knowledge representations of natural language sentences formed by the conjunction of concept predicates related through shared arguments.
Logico-linguistic modeling Logico-linguistic modeling is a method for building knowledge-based systems with a learning capability using Conceptual Models from Soft systems methodology, modal predicate logic and the Prolog...
Lumpers and splitters Lumping and splitting are opposing tendencies in any discipline which has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories.
Match report In metadata, a match report is a report that compares two distinct data dictionaries and creates a list of the data elements that have been identified as semantically equivalent.
Math-Bridge Math-Bridge is an e-learning system for mathematics based on the adaptive web-based ActiveMath learning environment.
Mathematical model A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
Medical algorithm A medical algorithm is any computation, formula, statistical survey, nomogram, or look-up table, useful in healthcare.
Mental mapping The concept of a mental map may refer to a person's point-of-view perception of their area of interaction.
Meta Content Framework Meta Content Framework (MCF) was a specification of a content format for structuring metadata about web sites and other data.
Microformat A microformat (sometimes abbreviated μF) is a web-based approach to semantic markup which seeks to re-use existing HTML/XHTML tags to convey metadata and other attributes in web pages and ...
Mind map A mind map is a diagram used to visually outline information.
Mind42 Mind42 is an online mind mapping application that allows users to visualize their thinking using the proven mind mapping method.
MindMeister MindMeister is an online mind mapping software that allows its users to visualize their thinking.
Minimum Information Standards The minimum information standard is a set of guidelines for reporting experimental data derived by relevant method in biosciences.
Model theory In mathematics, model theory is the study of classes of mathematical structures (e.g.
MultiNet Multilayered extended semantic networks (MultiNets) are both a knowledge representation paradigm and a language for meaning representation of natural language expressions that has been dev...
NeOn Toolkit (software) The NeOn Toolkit is an open source multi-platform ontology editor, which supports the development of ontologies in OWL/RDF. The editor is based on the Eclipse platform and provides a set of plug...
Nippon Decimal Classification The Nippon Decimal Classification (NDC, also called the Nippon Decimal System) is a system of library classification developed for mainly Chinese and Japanese language books maintain...
Object-centered high-level reference ontology The Object-Centered High-level REference ontology is an upper ontology, a formal ontological framework whose purpose is to describe very general concepts that are the same across all knowledge d...
Ontic In philosophy, ontic (from the Greek genitive : "of that which is") is physical, real, or factual existence.
OntoCAPE OntoCAPE is a large-scale ontology for the domain of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (CAPE).
Ontology (information science) In computer science and information science, an ontology formally represents knowledge as a hierarchy of concepts within a domain, using a shared vocabulary to denote the types, properties and interrelationships of those concepts.
Ontology alignment Ontology alignment, or ontology matching, is the process of determining correspondences between concepts.
OntoWiki OntoWiki is a free, open-source semantic wiki application, meant to serve as an ontology editor and a knowledge acquisition system.
Open Knowledge Base Connectivity Open Knowledge Base Connectivity (OKBC) is a protocol and an API for accessing knowledge in knowledge representation systems such as ontology repositories and object-relational databases.
Open world assumption In formal logic, the open world assumption is the assumption that the truth-value of a statement is independent of whether or not it is known by any single observer or agent to be true.
Page (online social networking) A page, also known as fan page or brand page, in online social networking parlance, is a profile on a social networking website which is considered distinct from an actual User profi...
Paradigm classification Paradigm classification in ontology is a two-dimensional classification scheme, such as a spreadsheet.
Personal knowledge base A personal knowledge base (PKB) is an electronic tool used to express, capture, and later retrieve the personal knowledge of an individual.
Philosophy of information The philosophy of information (PI) is the area of research that studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information science, information technology, and philosophy.
Pinakes (Callimachus) The Pinakes was the first library catalog, prepared by Callimachus of Cyrene during his tenure working at the Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt during the third century BCE. Only a ...
Pinakes (tables) Pinakes was the first library catalog, a catalog of books and scrolls.
Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System (abbreviated as PSH from the Czech Polytematický Strukturovaný Heslář) is a bilingual Czech–English controlled vocabulary of subject head...
POSC Caesar POSC Caesar Association (PCA) is an international, open, not-for-profit, member organization that promotes the development of open specifications to be used as standards for enabling the interop...
Preferential entailment Preferential entailment is a non-monotonic logic based on selecting only models that are considered the most plausible.
Pretext A pretext is an excuse to do something or say something that is not accurate.
Prezi Prezi is the cloud-based (SaaS) presentation software and storytelling tool for exploring and sharing ideas on a virtual canvas.
Procedural Reasoning System In Artificial Intelligence, the Procedural Reasoning System (PRS) is a framework for constructing real-time reasoning systems that can perform complex tasks in dynamic environments.
Procedural reasoning system In artificial intelligence, a procedural reasoning system (PRS) is a framework for constructing real-time reasoning systems that can perform complex tasks in dynamic environments.
Project Halo Project Halo, is a project funded by Paul Allen's Vulcan Inc.
PROTON The PROTON Ontology (PROTo ONtology) is a basic upper-level ontology that contains about 300 classes and 100 properties, providing coverage of the general concepts necessary for a wide range of ...
Protégé (software) Protégé is a free, open source ontology editor and a knowledge acquisition system.
Qualification problem In philosophy and AI (especially, knowledge based systems), the qualification problem is concerned with the impossibility of listing all the preconditions required for a real-world action to...
Radial tree A radial tree, or radial map, is a method of displaying a tree structure in a way that expands outwards, radially.
Ramification problem In philosophy and artificial intelligence, the ramification problem is concerned with the indirect consequences of an action.
ramm.x ramm.x (RDFa-deployed Multimedia Metadata) is an initiative to deploy multimedia metadata on the Semantic Web using RDFa.
Reason maintenance Reason maintenance is a knowledge representation approach to efficient handling of inferred information that is explicitly stored.
Reification (computer science) Reification is the process by which an abstract idea about a computer program is turned into an explicit data model or other object created in a programming language.
Reification (knowledge representation) Reification in knowledge representation involves the representation of factual assertions, that are referred to by other assertions; which might then be manipulated in some way.
Resource Description Framework The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model.
Retrievability Retrievability is a term associated with the ease with which information can be found or retrieved using an information system, specifically a search engine or information retrieval system.
Ronald J. Brachman Ronald Jay "Ron" Brachman (born 1949) is Chief Scientist of Yahoo! and head of Yahoo! Labs.
Schema crosswalk A Schema crosswalk is a table that shows equivalent elements (or "fields") in more than one database schema.
Science, Education and Learning in Freedom SELF is an international project financed by the European Commission which has developed a platform to encourage creative cooperation and the sharing of educational materials and continuous trai...
Semantic interoperability Semantic interoperability is the ability of computer systems to transmit data with unambiguous, shared meaning.
Semantic Knowledge Management Semantic knowledge management is a set of practices that seeks to classify content so that the knowledge it contains may be immediately accessed and transformed for delivery to the desired audie...
Semantic knowledge management Semantic knowledge management is a set of practices that seeks to classify content so that the knowledge it contains may be immediately accessed and transformed for delivery to the desired audie...
Semantic network A semantic network, or frame network, is a network which represents semantic relations between concepts.
Semantic parameterization Semantic parameterization is a conceptual modeling process for expressing natural language descriptions of a domain in first-order predicate logic.
Semantic reasoner A semantic reasoner, reasoning engine, rules engine, or simply a reasoner, is a piece of software able to infer logical consequences from a set of asserted facts or axioms.
SERVQUAL SERVQUAL, later called RATER, is a service quality framework.
Simple Knowledge Organization System Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C recommendation designed for representation of thesauri, classification schemes, taxonomies, subject-heading systems, or any other type ...
SMW+ SMW+ is an open source software bundle composed of the wiki application MediaWiki along with a number of its extensions, that was developed by the German software company Ontoprise GmbH from 200...
SNePS SNePS is a knowledge representation, reasoning, and acting (KRRA) system developed and maintained by Stuart C. Shapiro and colleagues at the State University of New York at Buffalo.
SpicyNodes SpicyNodes is a system for displaying hierarchical data, in which a focus node displays detailed information, and the surrounding nodes represent related information, with a layout based on radi...
Suggested Upper Merged Ontology The Suggested Upper Merged Ontology or SUMO is an upper ontology intended as a foundation ontology for a variety of computer information processing systems.
Tag (metadata) In information systems, a tag is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, digital image, or computer file).
Thesaurus In general usage, a thesaurus is a reference work that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, ...
Transaction logic Transaction Logic is an extension of predicate logic that accounts in a clean and declarative way for the phenomenon of state changes in logic programs and databases.
Tree (data structure) In computer science, a tree is a widely used abstract data type (ADT) or data structure implementing this ADT that simulates a hierarchical tree structure, with a root value and subtrees of chil...
Truth maintenance system A truth maintenance system, or TMS, is a knowledge representation method for representing both beliefs and their dependencies.
Type-token distinction In philosophy and knowledge representation, the type-token distinction is a distinction that separates an abstract concept from the objects which are particular instances of the concept.
Type–token distinction In philosophy and knowledge representation, the type-token distinction is a distinction that separates an abstract concept from the objects which are particular instances of the concept.
UMBEL UMBEL, short for Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer, is an extracted subset of OpenCyc, providing the Cyc data in an RDF ontology based on SKOS and OWL 2.
Unified Modeling Language The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose modeling language in the field of software engineering.
Unique name assumption The Unique Name Assumption (UNA) is a concept from ontology languages and description logics.
Universal Decimal Classification The Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) is a bibliographic and library classification developed by the Belgian bibliographers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine at the end of the 19th century.
Upper ontology (information science) In information science, an upper ontology (also known as a top-level ontology or foundation ontology) is an ontology (in the sense used in information science) which describes very g...
User modeling User modeling is a subdivision of human–computer interaction and describes the process of building up and modifying a user model.
User profile A user profile is a visual display of personal data associated with a specific user, or a customized desktop environment.
Visual hierarchy Visual hierarchy is the order in which the human eye perceives what it sees.
Vivid knowledge Vivid knowledge refers to a specific kind of knowledge representation.
Vivification Vivification is an operation on a description logic knowledge base to improve performance of a semantic reasoner.
VoiD The Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets is an RDF vocabulary, and a set of instructions, that enables the discovery and usage of linked data sets.
Website Parse Template Website Parse Template (WPT) is an XML-based open format which provides HTML structure description of website pages.
WordNet WordNet is a lexical database for the English language.
XMDP XHTML Meta Data Profiles (XMDP) is a format for defining metadata 'profiles' or formats in a machine-readable fashion, while also enabling people to see a description of the definition visually...
Yale shooting problem The Yale shooting problem is a conundrum or scenario in formal situational logic on which early logical solutions to the frame problem fail.