Ablation Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
Adiabatic invariant An adiabatic invariant is a property of a physical system that stays constant when changes occur slowly.
Afterglow plasma In the afterglow of a plasma, also known as remote plasma, the external electromagnetic fields that sustained the plasma glow are absent or insufficient to maintain the discharge.
Airglow Airglow (also called nightglow) is the very weak emission of light by a planetary atmosphere.
Alcator C-Mod Alcator C-Mod is a tokamak, a magnetically confined nuclear fusion device, at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center.
Ambipolar diffusion Ambipolar diffusion is diffusion of positive and negative species with opposite electrical charge due to their interaction via an electric field.
Anisothermal plasma An Anisothermal plasma is a plasma which thermal state can be approximated by more than one temperature for the different degrees of freedom of the plasma.
Astrophysical plasma An astrophysical plasma is a plasma (an ionized gas) the physical properties of which are studied as part of astrophysics.
Astrophysical X-ray source Astrophysical X-ray sources are astronomical objects with physical properties which result in the emission of X-rays.
Atmospheric dynamo The Atmospheric dynamo is a pattern of electrical currents that are set up in the Earth's ionosphere by multiple effects, mostly the Sun's solar wind, but also the tides of the Moon and Sun.
Atmospheric-pressure plasma Atmospheric-pressure plasma (or AP plasma or normal pressure plasma) is a plasma in which the pressure approximately matches that of the surrounding atmosphere – the so-called normal...
Aurora (astronomy) An aurora (plural: aurorae or auroras; from the Latin word aurora, "sunrise" or the Roman goddess of dawn) is a natural light display in the sky particularly in the high latitude (Arctic and...
AZ Cancri AZ Cancri (AZ Cnc) is a M-type flare star in the constellation Cancer.
Ball lightning Ball lightning is an unexplained atmospheric electrical phenomenon. The term refers to reports of luminous, spherical objects with diameters varying from pea-sized to several meters.
Ballooning instability The ballooning instability, or ballooning mode, is a form of plasma instability seen in tokamak fusion power reactors.
Beta (plasma physics) The beta of a plasma, symbolized by β, is the ratio of the plasma pressure (p = n kB T) to the magnetic pressure (pmag = B²/2μ0).
Biconic cusp The biconic cusp was an early method for modeling plasma confinement.
Birkeland current A Birkeland current is a set of currents which flow along geomagnetic field lines connecting the Earth’s magnetosphere to the Earth's high latitude ionosphere.
Bohm diffusion The diffusion of plasma across a magnetic field was conjectured to follow the Bohm diffusion scaling as indicated from the early plasma experiments of very lossy machines.
Boltzmann relation In a plasma, the Boltzmann relation describes the number density of an isothermal charged particle fluid when the thermal and the electrostatic forces acting on the fluid have reached equilibrium.
Bombarding Bombarding is the process of 'pumping' a Cold Cathode Lighting tube (otherwise called Neon Signs).
Bremsstrahlung Bremsstrahlung (from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation", i.e. "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation") is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a ch...
Cascaded Arc Plasma Source The cascaded arc is a wall-stabilized thermal electric arc discharge that produces a high density, low temperature plasma.
Centaurus X-1 Centaurus X-1 according to SIMBAD is supernova remnant SNR G315-02.3.
Centaurus X-2 Centaurus X-2 (Cen X-2) is the designation for an astronomical X-ray source initially, mistakenly, designated Crux X-1 when it was discovered.
Centaurus XR-1 Centaurus XR-1 (Cen XR-1) is the designation for the first astronomical X-ray source discovered in the constellation Centaurus.
Centaurus XR-2 Centaurus XR-2, or Cen XR-2, is the designation for the second extrasolar astronomical X-ray source in the constellation Centaurus detected on April 4, 1967, by a research group from the Depart...
Charged-device model The charged-device model is a model for characterizing the susceptibility of an electronic device to damage from electrostatic discharge.
Chir Batti Chir Batti, Chhir Batti or Cheer batti (Ghost light) is a yet unexplained strange dancing light phenomena occurring on dark nights reported from the Banni grasslands, its seasonal ma...
Chromo-Weibel instability The Chromo–Weibel instability is a plasma instability present in homogeneous or nearly-homogeneous non-abelian plasmas which possess an anisotropy in momentum space.
Chromo–Weibel instability The Chromo–Weibel instability is a plasma instability present in homogeneous or nearly-homogeneous non-abelian plasmas which possess an anisotropy in momentum space.
Collisionality In plasma physics of tokamaks, collisionality is a dimensionless parameter which expresses the ratio of the electron-ion collision frequency to the banana orbit frequency.
Columbia Non-neutral Torus The Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) is a small stellarator at the Columbia University Plasma Physics Laboratory designed by Thomas Sunn Pedersen with the aid of Wayne Reiersen and Fred Dahlgren...
Corona A corona (Latin, 'crown') is a type of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other celestial bodies.
Corona discharge In electricity, a corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid surrounding a conductor that is electrically energized.
Corona ring A corona ring, also called an anti-corona ring, is a toroid of conductive material, usually metal, which is attached to a terminal of high voltage equipment.
Coronal loop Coronal loops form the basic structure of the lower corona and transition region of the Sun.
Coronal radiative losses In astronomy and in astrophysics, for radiative losses of the solar corona, it is meant the energy flux irradiated from the external atmosphere of the Sun (traditionally divided into chromospher...
Coronal seismology Coronal seismology is a technique of studying the plasma of the Sun's corona with the use of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and oscillations.
Coulomb collision A Coulomb collision is a binary elastic collision between two charged particles interacting through their own electric field.
Critical ionization velocity Critical ionization velocity (CIV), or critical velocity (CV), is the relative velocity between a neutral gas and plasma (an ionized gas), at which the neutral gas will start to ionize.
Current sheet A current sheet is an electric current that is confined to a surface, rather than being spread through a volume of space.
Cyclotron radiation Cyclotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted by moving charged particles deflected by a magnetic field.
Cygnus X-ray ring The Cygnus X-ray ring contains > 6 x 1051 ergs of thermal energy so it is among the largest and most energetic interstellar features in the Milky Way galaxy.
Debye length In plasmas and electrolytes the Debye length, named after the Dutch physicist and physical chemist Peter Debye, is the measure of a charge carrier's net electrostatic effect in solution, and how far those electrostatic effects persist.
Debye sheath The Debye sheath (also electrostatic sheath) is a layer in a plasma which has a greater density of positive ions, and hence an overall excess positive charge, that balances an opposite neg...
Degree of ionization The degree of ionization (also known as ionization yield in the literature) refers to the proportion of neutral particles, such as those in a gas or aqueous solution, that are ionized into c...
Dense plasma focus A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a machine that produces, by electromagnetic acceleration and compression, a short-lived plasma that is hot and dense enough to cause nuclear fusion and the em...
Diffusion damping In modern cosmological theory, diffusion damping, also called photon diffusion damping, is a physical process which reduced density inequalities in the early universe, making the universe ...
Diocotron instability A diocotron instability is a plasma instability created by two sheets of charge slipping past each other.
Direct current discharge A direct current discharge is an electrical discharge, also known as plasma, sustained by a direct current (DC) through an ionized medium, e.g. a gas.
Direct-current discharge A direct-current discharge is an electrical discharge, also known as plasma, sustained by a direct current through an ionized medium, e.g. a gas.
Double layer (plasma) A double layer is a structure in a plasma and consists of two parallel layers with opposite electrical charge.
Duoplasmatron Duoplasmatron, an invention of Manfred von Ardenne, is a type of Ion source.
Dusty plasma A dusty plasma is a plasma containing millimeter (10−3) to nanometer (10−9) sized particles suspended in it.
Dynamo theory In geophysics, the dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field.
Edge-localized mode An edge-localized mode ("ELM") is a disruptive instability occurring in the edge region of a tokamak plasma due to the quasi-periodic relaxation of a transport barrier previously formed during a...
Electric discharge Electric discharge describes any flow of electric charge through a gas, liquid or solid.
Electric spark An electric spark is a type of electrostatic discharge that occurs when an electric field creates an ionized electrically conductive channel in air producing a brief emission of light and sound.
Electrodeless plasma excitation Electrodeless plasma excitation methods include helicon plasma sources, inductively coupled plasmas, and surface-wave-sustained discharges.
Electron beam ion trap Electron beam ion trap is used in physics to denote an electromagnetic bottle that produces and confines highly charged ions.
Electron spiral toroid Electron Power Systems, Inc. of Acton, Massachusetts, United States, claims to have developed a technology for maintaining small stable plasma toroids called electron spiral toroids (ES...
Electron temperature If the velocities of a group of electrons, e.g., in a plasma, follow a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, then the electron temperature is well-defined as the temperature of that distribution.
Electron wake Electron wake is the disturbance left after a high-energy charged particle passes through condensed matter or plasma.
Electrostatic discharge Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown.
Electrostatic ion thruster An electrostatic ion thruster is a design for ion thrusters, a highly efficient low-thrust spacecraft propulsion running on electrical power.
Electrothermal instability The electrothermal instability (also known as the ionization instability or Velikhov instability in the literature) is a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability appearing in magnetized...
ETE (tokamak) The Spherical Tokamak Experiment (ETE - Experimento Tokamak Esférico) is a machine dedicated to plasma studies in low aspect ratio tokamaks.
Evershed effect The Evershed effect, named after the British astronomer John Evershed, is the radial flow of gas across the photospheric surface of the penumbra of sunspots from the inner border with the umbra towards the outer edge.
Ferrofluid A ferrofluid (portmanteau of ferromagnetic and fluid) is a liquid which becomes strongly magnetized in the presence of a magnetic field.
Flame rectification A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which is in only one direction, a process known as r...
Flare spray Flare sprays are a type of eruption associated with solar flares.
Fluorescent lamp A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a low pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
Force-free magnetic field A force-free magnetic field is a type of field which arises as a special case from the magnetostatic equation in plasmas.
Guiding center In many cases of practical interest, the motion in a magnetic field of an electrically charged particle can be treated as the superposition of a relatively fast circular motion around a point called t...
GYRO GYRO is a computational plasma physics code developed and maintained at General Atomics.
Gyrokinetics Gyrokinetics is a theoretical framework to study plasma behavior on perpendicular spatial scales comparable to the gyroradius and frequencies much lower than the particle cyclotron frequencies.
Gyroradius The gyroradius (also known as radius of gyration, Larmor radius or cyclotron radius) is the radius of the circular motion of a charged particle in the presence of a uniform mag...
Hasegawa-Mima equation In plasma physics, the Hasegawa–Mima equation, named after Akira Hasegawa and Kunioki Mima, is an equation that describes a certain regime of plasma, where the time scales are very fast, and the...
Hasegawa–Mima equation In plasma physics, the Hasegawa–Mima equation, named after Akira Hasegawa and Kunioki Mima, is an equation that describes a certain regime of plasma, where the time scales are very fast, and the...
Helically Symmetric Experiment The Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX) is an experimental plasma confinement device at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, whose design principles are hoped to be incorporated into a fusion r...
Heliophysics Science Division The Heliophysics Science Division of the Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA) conducts research on the Sun, its extended solar system environment (the heliosphere), and interactions of Earth, ...
Heliosphere The heliosphere is a vast region of space surrounding the Sun, a sort of bubble filled by the interplanetary medium and extending well beyond the orbit of Pluto.
Heliospheric current sheet The heliospheric current sheet is the surface within the Solar System where the polarity of the Sun's magnetic field changes from north to south.
High beta fusion reactor The high beta fusion reactor (also known as the 4th generation prototype T4) is a project being developed by a team led by Charles Chase of Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works.
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is an ionospheric research program jointly funded by the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy, the University of Alaska, and the Defens...
High-power impulse magnetron sputtering High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS or HiPIMS, also known as high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering, HPPMS) is a method for physical vapor deposition of thin ...
IMPACT IMPACT (International Multi-user Plasma, Atmospheric and Cosmic dust Twin laboratory) is a successful merger of many different science communities that need similar instrumentation and resources.
Induction plasma technology In 1980’s, with the increasing demand for high performance materials and other scientific issues, people demonstrated high interest in applications of induction plasma technology in industrial ...
Inductively coupled plasma An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electric currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varyin...
Instability In numerous fields of study, the component of instability within a system is generally characterized by some of the outputs or internal states growing without bounds.
International Reference Ionosphere International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is a common permanent scientific project of the Committee on Space Research and the International Union of Radio Science started 1968/69.
Interplanetary medium The interplanetary medium is the material which fills the solar system, and through which all the larger solar system bodies, such as planets, asteroids, and comets, move.
Intracluster medium In astronomy, the intracluster medium (ICM) is the superheated plasma present at the center of a galaxy cluster.
Ion beam An ion beam is a type of charged particle beam consisting of ions.
Ion cyclotron resonance Ion cyclotron resonance is a phenomenon related to the movement of ions in a magnetic field.
Ion wind Ion wind, ionic wind, coronal wind or electric wind is a stream of ionized fluid generated by a strong electric field.
Ionized air glow The ionized air glow is the emission of characteristic blue-purple-violet light, of color called electric blue, by air subjected to an energy flux.
Ionized-air glow Ionized-air glow is the fluorescent emission of characteristic blue–purple–violet light, of color called electric blue, by air subjected to an energy flux.
Ionosphere The ionosphere is a region of the upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, and includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Kink instability A kink instability, also oscillation or mode, is a class of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities which sometimes develop in a thin plasma column carrying a strong axial current.
Landau damping In physics, Landau damping, named after its discoverer, the eminent Soviet physicist Lev Davidovich Landau, is the effect of damping (exponential decrease as a function of time) of longitudinal ...
Langmuir probe A Langmuir probe is a device named after Nobel Prize winning physicist Irving Langmuir, used to determine the electron temperature, electron density, and electric potential of a plasma.
Large Plasma Device The Large Plasma Device is an experimental physics device at UCLA. It is designed as a general-purpose laboratory for experimental plasma physics research.
Laser ablation synthesis in solution LASiS is the acronym for Laser Ablation Synthesis in Solution and it is a commonly used method for obtaining colloidal solution of nanoparticles in a variety of solvents.
Laser-induced fluorescence Laser-induced fluorescence or LED induced fluorescence (LIF) is a spectroscopic method used for studying structure of molecules, detection of selective species and flow visualization and measure...
Levitated dipole A levitated dipole is a proposed nuclear fusion reactor technology using a solid superconducting torus, magnetically levitated in the reactor chamber.
Localized Surface Plasmons A Localized Surface Plasmon (LSP) is the result of The confinement of a Surface Plasmon in a nanoparticle of size comparable to or smaller than the wavelength of light used to excite the plasmon.
Magnetic helicity In plasma physics, magnetic helicity is the extent to which a magnetic field "wraps around itself".
Magnetic pressure Magnetic pressure is an energy density associated with a magnetic field.
Magnetic reconnection Magnetic reconnection is a physical process in highly conducting plasmas in which the magnetic topology is rearranged and magnetic energy is converted to kinetic energy, thermal energy, and part...
Multipactor effect The multipactor effect is a phenomenon in radio frequency (RF) amplifier vacuum tubes and waveguides, where, under certain conditions, secondary electron emission in resonance with an alternatin...
Nano-PSI Nano-PSI is a plasma device at the FOM - Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research.
Negative temperature In physics, certain systems can achieve negative temperature; that is, their thermodynamic temperature can be expressed as a negative quantity on the Kelvin or Rankine scales.
Non-neutral plasmas A non-neutral plasma is a plasma for which the total charge is sufficiently different from zero, so that the electric field created by the un-neutralized charge plays an important or even domina...
Nonequilibrium Gas and Plasma Dynamics Laboratory The Nonequilibrium Gas and Plasma Dynamics Laboratory (NGPDL) at the Aerospace Engineering Department of the University of Michigan is headed by Professor Iain Boyd and performs research of none...
Nonthermal plasma A nonthermal plasma is in general any plasma which is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, either because the ion temperature is different from the electron temperature, or because the velocity dis...
Norma XR-2 Norma XR-2, or Nor XR-2, is the second extrasolar astronomical X-ray source in the constellation Norma detected by a research group at the Naval Research Laboratory using an Aerobee 150 sounding...
Nuclear pulse propulsion Nuclear pulse propulsion or external pulsed plasma propulsion, is a theoretical method of spacecraft propulsion that uses nuclear explosions for thrust.
Outer space Outer space, or simply space, is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including the Earth.
Paschen's law Paschen's Law is an equation that gives the breakdown voltage, that is the voltage necessary to start a discharge or electric arc, between two electrodes in a gas as a function of pressure and g...
PK-3 Plus (ISS Experiment) The PK-3 Plus or (Plasmakristall-3 Plus) laboratory is a joint Russian-German laboratory for the investigation of dusty/complex plasmas on board the International Space Station (ISS), with the p...
Plasma (physics) Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed") is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and gas).
Plasma acceleration Plasma acceleration is a technique for accelerating charged particles, such as electrons, positrons and ions, using an electric field associated with electron plasma wave or other high-gradient ...
Plasma Contactor Plasma contactors are devices used on spacecraft in order to prevent accumulation of electrostatic charge through the expulsion of plasma.
Plasma contactor Plasma contactors are devices used on spacecraft in order to prevent accumulation of electrostatic charge through the expulsion of plasma.
Plasma containment In nuclear physics, plasma containment refers to the act of maintaining a plasma in a discrete volume.
Plasma deep drilling technology Plasma deep drilling technology is one of several different variants of recently explored new drilling technologies which would be able to substitute conventional, contact-based rotary systems.
Plasma diagnostics Plasma diagnostics are a pool of methods, instruments, and experimental techniques used to measure properties of a plasma, such as plasma components' density, distribution function over energy (...
Plasma diffusion The plasma diffusion across the magnetic field is an important topic in magnetic confinement of fusion plasma.
Plasma globe A plasma globe or plasma lamp (also called plasma ball, dome, sphere, tube or orb, depending on shape) is (usually) a clear glass orb filled with a mixture of various noble gases with a hi...
Plasma lamp Plasma lamps are a type of gas discharge lamp energized by radio frequency (RF) power.
Plasma medicine Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life sciences and clinical medicine to use physical plasma for therapeutic applications.
Plasma modeling Plasma Modeling refers to solving equations of motion that describe the state of a plasma.
Plasma oscillation Plasma oscillations, also known as "Langmuir waves" (after Irving Langmuir), are rapid oscillations of the electron density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals.
Plasma parameter The plasma parameter is a dimensionless number, denoted by capital Lambda, Λ.
Plasma parameters Plasma parameters define various characteristics of a plasma, an electrically conductive collection of charged particles that responds collectively to electromagnetic forces.
Plasma propulsion engine A plasma propulsion engine is a type of electric propulsion that generates thrust from a quasi-neutral plasma.
Plasma railgun A plasma railgun is a linear accelerator which, like a projectile railgun, uses two long parallel electrodes to accelerate a "sliding short" armature.
Plasma receiver A plasma receiver is an instrument capable of detecting the vibrations in outer space plasma.
Plasma recombination Plasma recombination is a process by which positive ions of a plasma capture a free (energetic) electron and combine with electrons or negative ions to form new neutral atoms.
Plasma shaping Plasma shaping is the study of the plasma shape in such devices, and is particularly important for next step fusion devices such as ITER. This shape is conditioning partly the performance of th...
Plasma stealth Plasma stealth is a proposed process to use ionized gas (plasma) to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) of an aircraft.
Plasma surface interaction Plasma Surface Interaction studies study the interaction at the interface between plasma and materials.
Plasma torch A plasma torch (or plasma arc or plasma gun) is a device for generating a directed flow of plasma.
Plasma transferred wire arc thermal spraying Plasma transferred wire arc (PTWA) thermal spraying is a thermal spraying process that deposits a coating on the internal surface of a cylindrical surface, or external surface of any...
Plasma window The plasma window (not to be confused with a plasma shield) is a technology that fills a volume of space with plasma confined by a magnetic field.
Plasma-desorption mass spectrometry Plasma desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PDMS; also called fission fragment ionization) is a mass spectrometry technique in which ionization of material in a solid sample by bombarding it...
Plasma-immersion ion implantation Plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) or pulsed-plasma doping (pulsed PIII) is a surface modification technique of extracting the accelerated ions from the plasma by applying a high voltage ...
Plasma-powered cannon A plasma cannon is an experimental projectile weapon, which accelerates a projectile by means of a plasma discharge between electrodes at the rear of the barrel, generating a rapid increase in p...
Plasmoid A plasmoid is a coherent structure of plasma and magnetic fields.
Plasmon In physics, a plasmon is a quantum of plasma oscillation.
Polar jet A polar jet is a phenomenon often seen in astronomy, where streams of matter are emitted along the axis of rotation of a compact object.
Polywell A polywell is a type of fusion reactor that uses an electric field to do work on ions, to heat them to fusion conditions.
Proton beam Proton beams, a type of ion beams, are the result of proton particle acceleration by means of a cyclotron or a synchrotron and can be used e.g. in Proton Beam Therapy for cancer treatment or for...
Pseudospark switch The pseudospark switch, also known as a cold-cathode thyratron due to the similarities with regular thyratrons, is a gas-filled tube capable of high speed switching.
Q-machine A Q-machine is a device that is used in experimental plasma physics.
QCD matter Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a number of theorized phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons.
Quark-gluon plasma A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a phase of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.
Quark–gluon plasma A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a phase of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.
Relativistic jet Relativistic jets are extremely powerful jets of plasma which emerge from presumed massive objects at the centers of some active galaxies, notably radio galaxies and quasars.
Relativistic plasma Relativistic plasmas in physics are plasmas for which relativistic corrections to a particle's mass and velocity are important.
Resistive ballooning mode The resistive ballooning mode (RBM) is an instability occurring in magnetized plasmas, particularly in magnetic confinement devices such as tokamaks, when the pressure gradient is opposite to th...
Resolved sideband cooling Resolved sideband cooling is a laser cooling technique allowing cooling of tightly bound atoms and ions beyond the Doppler cooling limit, potentially to their motional ground state.
Resonant magnetic perturbations Resonant magnetic perturbations are a special type of magnetic field perturbations used to control burning plasma instabilities called edge-localized modes in magnetic fusion devices such as tok...
Richtmyer-Meshkov instability The Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) occurs when an interface between fluids of differing density is impulsively accelerated, e.g. by the passage of a shock wave.
Richtmyer–Meshkov instability The Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) occurs when an interface between fluids of differing density is impulsively accelerated, e.g. by the passage of a shock wave.
Safety factor (plasma physics) The safety factor, labeled q or q(r), is the ratio of the times a particular magnetic field line travels around a toroidal confinement area's "long way" (toroidally) to the "short w...
Sagittarius XR-1 Sagittarius XR-1, or Sgr XR-1, is the designation for the first extrasolar astronomical X-ray source in the constellation Sagittarius detected by a research group at the Naval Research Lab...
Saha ionization equation The Saha ionization equation, also known as the Saha–Langmuir equation, is an expression that relates the ionization state of an element to the temperature and pressure.
Scorpius XR-5 Scorpius XR-5, or Sco XR-5, is the designation for the fifth extrasolar astronomical X-ray source in the constellation Scorpius detected by a research group at the Naval Research Laboratory usin...
Screened Poisson equation In physics, the screened Poisson equation is a partial differential equation, which arises in (for example) Yukawa's theory of mesons and electric field screening in plasmas.
Self-focusing Self-focusing is a non-linear optical process induced by the change in refractive index of materials exposed to intense electromagnetic radiation.
Solar flare A solar flare is a sudden brightening observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 1025 joules of energy (about a sixth of...
Solar transition region The solar transition region is a region of the Sun's atmosphere, between the chromosphere and corona.
Solar wind The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (a plasma) released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun.
Southern Hemisphere Auroral Radar Experiment The Southern Hemisphere Auroral Radar Experiment, started 1988, is an Antarctic research project designed to observe velocities and irregularities of electrical fields in the ionosphere and magn...
Space physics Space physics, also known as space plasma physics, is the study of plasmas as they occur naturally in the universe.
Spheromak A spheromak is an arrangement of plasma formed into a toroidal shape similar to a smoke ring.
Spinplasmonics Spinplasmonics is a field of nanotechnology combining spintronics and plasmonics.
SST-1 (tokamak) SST-1 (Steady State Superconducting Tokamak) is a plasma confinement experimental device in the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), an autonomous research institute under Department of Atomic E...
Strangeness production Strangeness production is a signature and a diagnostic tool of quark–gluon plasma (or QGP) formation and properties.
Sun The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility The Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility, located near the small town of Vasilsursk about 100 km eastward from Nizhniy Novgorod in Russia, is a laboratory for ionosphere research.
Tandem Mirror Experiment The tandem mirror experiment (TMX) and (TMX-U) was a magnetic mirror machine operated from 1979 to 1987 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Taylor state In plasma physics, a Taylor state is the minimum energy state of a plasma satisfying the constraint of conserving magnetic helicity.
Thomson scattering Thomson scattering is the elastic scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a free charged particle, as described by classical electromagnetism.
Versatile Toroidal Facility The Versatile Toroidal Facility is a research group within the Physics Research Division of the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Visibly dark X-ray source A visibly dark X-ray source is an astronomical X-ray source that has not as yet been readily associated with an astronomical visual source.
Vlasov equation The Vlasov equation is a differential equation describing time evolution of the distribution function of plasma consisting of charged particles with long-range (for example, Coulomb) interaction.
VORPAL VORPAL is a computational plasma framework that can predict the dynamics of electromagnetic systems, plasmas, and rarefied as well as dense gases.
Warm dense matter Warm dense matter, abbreviated WDM, can refer to either equilibrium or non-equilibrium states of matter in a (loosely defined) regime of temperature and density between solid and plasma.
Weibel instability The Weibel instability is a plasma instability present in homogeneous or nearly homogeneous electromagnetic plasmas which possess an anisotropy in momentum (velocity) space.
X-ray astronomy X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.
X-ray astronomy detector X-ray astronomy detectors are instruments that detect X-rays for use in the study of X-ray astronomy.
X-ray generation X-ray generation can occur whenever charged particles pass within certain distances of each other without being in fixed orbits, the accelerations may give off X-radiation, or X-rays.
Zakharov system In mathematics, the Zakharov system is a system of non-linear partial differential equations, introduced by Vladimir Zakharov in 1972 to describe the propagation of Langmuir waves in an ionized...
Zonal flow (plasma) In toroidally confined fusion plasma experiments the term zonal flow means a plasma flow within a magnetic surface primarily in the poloidal direction.